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Elaboration Olive oil

1. Olive oil

Olive Oil. It is the only obtained oily juice from the fruit of the olive (Olea europea L.) with the exclusion of those obtained with solvents, procedures and re-esterification of any mixture with oils of other kinds. It is marketed under various designations and definitions. Among all, the most important thing is virgin olive oil that is obtained from the fruit of the olive tree solely by mechanical methods or other physical means under conditions, especially heat, which has had no treatment other than washing, decantation, centrifugation and filtering.

The oil constitutes the 15-26% of the olive and it is in the vacuoles within the cells of the olives. The olive oil production consists of the separation of the oil contained in the fruit of the solid components and the water of vegetation of the olives.

2. Processes of Extraction

For the extraction of the olive oil two processes are used, one is based on the separation in a horizontal centrifugal machine (Decanter) of the three present phases in the olive (oil, water of vegetation and solid), the other (of two phases) separates the oil of the rest of component presents in the fruits (solid and vegetation water). Still in some places the call is used traditional process in which the oil is obtained by means of press.

Wash and Heavy

When arriving the olives it is necessary to retire the dust and other substances to him that can bring like leaves, earth, stones, branches These processes are realized with automatic machines that clear the leaves by means of ventilators, next the olives are washed in a rotatory drum in which the water circulates and in that the heaviest materials separate. After the washing the olive is heavy to know the amount of clean olive that contributes each partner.

2.1 Traditional process

EIn this process the liquid phase (Olive oil + vegetation water) separates of the solid phase of the olives by pressure. Later the separation of the contained olive oil is realized in the liquid obtained in the pressing by movement.

2.2 Process of three phases

The extraction of oil per centrifuge olive paste and obtaining separate oil, water, vegetation and the solid residue (Orujo) is done through a process that takes place in modular plants working continuously.

The phases of this process are:

In short the quality of the obtained oil depends on the used system to process the olives. In the process to three phases the number of present natural antioxidants in the oil due to the added water is reduced to dilute grazes of olives. Nevertheless the chlorophyllous pigment content is but high in the oil obtained in modular plants because in the milling in the hammer mill more chlorophylls than in of stone are freed.

The biggest problem in three phases of the process is the high volume of wastewater that is generated (alpechin) (1,2-1,3 litres / kg. Olive processed), due to the addition of water that is made pasta of Olives before entering the horizontal decanter.
These liquids have a high pollution and high concentration in poly phenols that prevent its purification by conventional means, which must deposit with evaporation ponds for the increase in costs, health problems and visual impact.

2.3 Process of two phases

Due to the high volume of waste water generated by the process to three phases, which brought about a great problem to them, it was reason why the new models arose from horizontal centrifugal decanters that were able to separate the oily phase of grazes of olive without requiring the hot water addition. This implied that liquid spills would not be producieran having the solid remainder a major contained in humidity.

The extraction of the olive oil by the system of centrifugalization of two phases takes place in modular plants that work in continuous and in the same they are obtained separately, on the one hand, the oil and, on the other, grazes fluid (alperujo) that contains the water of vegetation and the pulp.

Two first stage of this process is realized of form similar to those of the system of three phases, the unique difference is in the centrifugalization of grazes and the subsequent centrifugalization of the resulting oil.

3. Storage of the oil

The tanks to store the olive oil would have to be constructed with totally impermeable and unassailable materials. The material used for the construction must present/display greater inertia with respect to the oil, so that this it does not absorb scents and defective flavors and do not dissolve substances that could contaminate or produce phenomena of oxidation (metal presence) in oils.

The tank must protect to the oil of the light and the air, since these factors accelerate the alteration of the product. In addition it must maintain the oil to an almost constant temperature (on 15-18C), avoiding abrupt changes. Low temperatures can bring about the freezing of the oil and discharges to contribute to their oxidation.
Until recently time the tanks that better met these conditions were the deposits buried with a suitable covering (generally refractory tiles).

At the moment stainless steel tanks of different capacities are used, normally of 50 tons.